Chlamydia and gonorrhea are two types of preventable bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that, if left untreated, can lead to infertility. Chlamydia is often a silent infection, showing no symptoms. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), 10-15% of women with untreated chlamydia will develop pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydia is also responsible for over 40% of fallopian tube infections that may present with no symptoms.
Gonorrhea can cause a painful or burning sensation with urination and vaginal discharge, although it can also be asymptomatic. Gonorrhea, if left untreated, may also cause tubal damage and scar tissue.
It is estimated that 2.86 million cases of chlamydia and 820,000 cases of gonorrhea occur every year in the United States.
In 2013, women ages 20-24 had the highest rate of infection compared with any other age or sex group (3,621.1 cases per 100,000 females for chlamydia and 541.6 cases per 100,000 females for gonorrhea). These two infections are preventable with the use of a condom, although this is not 100% effective.