International Fertility Law

Many patients seek care in the United States because certain fertility treatments are not available in their local jurisdiction. International reproductive laws differ between countries. Below is a brief description of the reproductive laws that inhibit or limit a patient’s ability to utilize egg donors, gender selection, and gestational carrier surrogacy.

Egg Donation

Countries where commercial (compensated egg donation) is legal: Barbados, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Greece, India, Mexico, Panama, Russia, Spain, South Africa, USA, UK (non- anonymous), Ukraine

Countries where only altruistic egg donation is legal: Australia, France, Canada (must be non-anonymous)

Countries where all forms of egg donation are illegal: rest of the world (Italy, Germany, Austria)

Source: Kovacs P (2010-06-14).  “Seeking IVF Aboard: Medical Tourism for Infertile Couples”. Medscape

Gender Selection

Countries where Gender Selection is legal: Cyprus, Thailand, United States

Countries where Gender Selection is illegal: rest of the world (Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Italy, Korea, Spain)

Source: Darnovsky, Marcy. “Countries with Laws or Policies on Sex Selection.” Center for Genetics and Society, Apr. 2009. Web.

Gestational Carrier Surrogacy

Countries where commercial (compensated surrogacy) is legal: Armenia, Belarus, Cyprus, Georgia, India, Russia, South Africa, Ukraine, United States (Arkansas, California, Florida, Illinois, Texas, Massachusetts, Vermont)

Countries where only altruistic surrogacy is legal: Australia, Canada (except Quebec), Denmark, Hungary, Israel, Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States (New York, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nebraska, Virginia, Oregon, Washington)

Countries where all forms of surrogacy are illegal: Austria, Belgium, Canada (Quebec), China, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States (Arizona, Michigan, Indiana, North Dakota)

Sources: Milliez, J. (September 2008). “Surrogacy: FIGO Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women’s Health”. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 102 (3): 312-313.


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